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  1. page Tibet and China Under Mongol Domination edited ... Back to The Period of Rival Empires In the 13th Century, the Mongols conquered China and esta…
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    Back to The Period of Rival Empires
    In the 13th Century, the Mongols conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty. Then, in 1247, Sakya Pandita, the chief of the Sakya Buddhist sect in Tibet, traveled to the new capital in Liangzhou along with his nephew Phagpa to pay tribute and pledge allegiance to the Mongol court. Upon his ascension to the throne in 1260, Kublai Khan granted Phagpa the title of "Imperial Tutor." This established the precedent of a priest-patron relationship between Mongol rulers and Tibetan religious leaders.
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    Beginning in 1207, Genghis Khan subjugated Xixia and Tibet became a tributary state of the Mongols. In 1227 after Genghis Khan died, Tibet ceased to send tribute--sending Goden Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, to order troops against Tibet. Prince Goden tried to find an outstanding Buddhist lama in Tibet, and he chose the Sakya lama, Kunga Gyaltsen, who was also known as "Sakya Pandita." Sakya Pandita went to the Kokonor region where Prince Goden had his camp, with two of his nephews, Phagpa and Chakna. Sakya Pandita instructed Goden in the teachings of the Buddha--using the opportunity as a chance to spread Tibetan Buddhism far and wide. Sakya Pandita succeeded his authority to his nephew Phagpa, and he died in 1251. Prince Goden died soon after, and Kublai gained command of the Kokonor region. Kublai had Phagpa as his spiritual guide and teacher, and he respected him privately. However, though Phagpa insisted that Kublai should allow the practice of the Buddhist sects other than his own, Kublai did not allow this. In 1254, Kublai gave a letter of investiture to Phagpa, granting him supreme authority over Tibet. Kublai forced the people to practice, study, and to understand Buddhism.
    In 1260, Kublai became the new Khan and the lama-patron relationship between Tibet and the Mongols was like the sun and the moon in the sky. Many Tibetan lamas criticized Phagpa for going to the Mongols and follow their traditions, but Phagpa did not give in, insisting that this was the best way to make the Mongols accept Tibetan Buddhism. In 1268, Phagpa presented Kublai a script, which Phagpa devised especially for the Mongolian language. It was based upon Tibetan writing, and soon it became known as "Phagpa's Script." Many official documents have been written in this language, even though it fell to disuse after the death of Kublai. In 1280, Kublai Khan had conquered all of China, and he became the Emperor of China. He died in 1295. Even though Kublai favored the Sakyapa sect, his primary descendents did not remain devoted solely to it. The Karmapa sect had been invited to the Mongol court by the year 1331.
    Scholar's Perspective
    A study of the role of Tibetans in China under Mongol rule is made difficult by several problems of definition: whether and to what degree Tibet was at all a part of the Mongol empire, inconsistency of terminology, the character of the sources, and whether it is at all appropriate to speak of Tibetans in China as if their nationality would be relevant. The question whether Tibet was ever conquered by the Mongols, in the sense that China was conquered, is obscured by the conflicting data preserved in later Buddhist Mongolian and Tibetan records. The Chinese sources remain silent, and all concrete data for later years of Mongol rule in China show that there was little if any direct control of Tibet proper. Considering the records of Yuan History and that by Rashid al-Din, it seems to be a fact that most of Tibet proper remained outside the direct control of the Sino-Mongol bureaucracy, and that even the borderlands were throughout the Yuan dynasty an unruly and troubled region.
    The fact that licensed border markets existed for trade with Tibet is a certain indication that Tibet was treated as a foreign country by the Sino-Mongol government, because no such markets existed within China proper. They were established only in the border regions, where some trade and embassy traffic entered the territory of Chinese provinces. It indicates that Tibet was a terra incognita, a foreign country for the Chinese and Mongols of which even the geographical essentials were little known. Indigenous lamas whose government was sanctioned by the imperial court via the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs ruled the greater part of Tibet, but they received little or no interference from the emperors.
    Chinese Perspective
    A few years prior to the Southern Song Dynasty’s collapse in 1279, Mongol Khan Kublai rose to power as emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. This began China’s first era of consolidated political rule by a racial minority group, lasting from 1271 to 1368. It was also at this crucial juncture that Tibet was officially incorporated into China as a subordinate territory. Beginning in the Yuan, the association between China and Tibet can be characterized as both a Buddhist Cho-yon relationship and a political relationship of sovereign and subject. The Cho-yon relationship is that between patrons and lamas, which played out specifically between the Yuan emperors and the major lamas of the Sagya sect of Tibetan Buddhism. For example, twice in two years, Kublai Khan bestowed a host of material riches upon Pagba, the Prince of Dharma of the Sagya Sect, which included gold, brocade, and livestock. In return, Pagba conducted Buddhist rituals in the emperor’s name many times over.
    China's political reign over Tibet was sealed through the work of a talented, respected monk named Sapan Gunga Gyaincain. Along with his two nephews, he forged the first official political ties between Mongolia and Tibet, by writing an open letter to the Tibetan temporal and secular leaders in U-Tsang and Ngari, urging them to submit to Mongolia. To further solidify the link within the “Province of Tibet,” as Italian explorer Marco Polo described the area, and the sovereign territory of China, Kublai Khan appointed Pagba, the leader of the Sagya sect after Sapan’s death, to the position of Imperial Tutor. Other lamas of high rank were given this title as well, thereby creating a class of officials with the power to issue writs in the name of the imperial powers. Sangge, a disciple of Pagba, was given an even higher post in the Yuan court as Right-Hand Prime Minister. At the same time, the Yuan government began to levy taxes, station troops, set up postal stations, and conduct household censuses in the former Kingdom of Tubo. Thus began China’s successful rule over Tibet as one of the its many provinces.

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  2. page The Period of Rival Empires edited ... Forward to Tibet and China Under Mongol Domination According to extant documents, political a…
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    Forward to Tibet and China Under Mongol Domination
    According to extant documents, political and social relations between China and Tibet can be traced back to China's Tang Dynasty, which lasted from 618 to 907 AD. In the 7th Century, Tibetan King Songsten Gampo consolidated various tribes from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau under his central rule to establish the Tubo Dynasty roughly around the same time. Gampo sent envoys to the Tang capital of Chang'an in order to establish marital ties with the Tang court, and in 641, the Tibetan King married the Chinese princess Wencheng. After this connection was forged, the Tang emperor conferred the titles of Imperial Son-In-Law Governor and Treasured Prince upon Gampo.
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    Nyatri Tsenpo, the "Neck-enthroned King," was the first King of Tibet. However, the real history of Tibet begins with the 8th King, Drigum Tsenpo, because he was buried in the first tomb. The minister Longam killed Drigum, but one of his sons, Chatri Tsenpo, succeeded him. The 28th Tibetan King, Tho-tho-ri Nyantsen, is said to have received "The Secret"--the first book of Buddhist scripture in Tibet (233 AD). "The Secret" originated from India, and it was initially unable to be read by the Tibetans because it was written in Sanskrit. The 33rd Tibetan King, Songsten Gampo, instituted ten moral principles and sixteen rules of public conduct for his people. He married the Princess of Nepal. The Nepalese princess, Princess Devi took with her to Tibet the image of the Aksobhya Buddha, and the present-day Tibetans still believe that the Buddha himself blessed the image. Songsten sent Thon-mi Sam-bhota, along with sixteen others, to India to learn Sanskrit and translate "The Secret" into Tibetan script. Eventually Songsten requested the hand of another princess, Princess Wen-ch'eng of China, in marriage. Both the Nepalese and Chinese Princesses had temples constructed in dedication to their respective Buddha. In 640, Tibet occupied northern Burma and all of Nepal for a period of time, while in Lhasa, nine ministers were appointed by Songsten to divide the land. In 645, Songsten constructed a temple in the Chinese province of Shansi. He also sent around 19,000 Tibetan and Nepalese troops to aid the Chinese troops in India. In 649, Songsten died. His tomb is located in the Chongyas Valley near Yalung.
    Gar Tongtsen, grandson of Songsten, took over the throne. Gar's son, Gar Tsenya then took over and in 670, the Tibetan army captured the "4 garrisons of Anhsi." In 671, a Chinese army was sent to fight the Tibetans. The Tibetan King, Mangsong Mangtsen, sent one of his ministers to China to demonstrate the unity and strength of the Tibetans. In 676, Mangsong passed away without a born successor, and his son was born several days after his death. Dusong Mangje, Mangsong's successor, died himself while leading the Tibetan army in the Chinese province of Yun-nan. Dusong's son, Tride Tsugtsen, took the throne. In 755, the Tibetan King Mes-Agtshom died. Trisong Detson (his heir) was a strong supporter of Buddhism, which did not sit well with the pro-Bon Ministers in Lhasa. Regardless of this opposition, Trisong invited the Indian pandit Santiraksita to visit Tibet and to teach the Buddhist doctrine. Santiraksita left, but the Tantric Master Padmasambhara took his place. Trisong elected seven "intelligent men" to become "trial monks," and the mission was a success. From 792-794, two schools of Buddhism in Tibet--the "instantaneous system" of the Chinese school, and the "slow system" from the Indian school--were juxtaposed by Trisong and open for debate. Trisong made a declaration that promised to keep the Three Jewels of Buddhism in Tibet. In 783 peace negotiations between China and Tibet took place, which resulted in a Sino-Tibetan treaty. This treaty established the boundaries between China and Tibet. In 823 a stone pillar in Lhasa was erected to commemorate the Sino-Tibetan treaty of 783. In 836, the Tibetan King Ralpachen was killed by pro-Bon Ministers--who were, in actuality, supporters of his brother Darma. As a result, Darma took over the throne and he proceeded to eradicate Buddhism from Tibet. In 842, the Buddhist monk Lhalung Palgye Dorje traveled to Lhasa to assassinate Darma. He succeeded, and he fled to a cave in the mountains and spent his time in deep meditation. Darma's son, O'sung, succeeded him on the throne. However, O'sung was not the sole ruler of Tibet: another king was put on the throne in Yalung. This marked the break of the royal lineage of kings in Tibet, thus ending the Chosgyal Age.
    Scholar's Perspective
    The myth that Tibetan culture had little influence on greater Asian history, maintained by many scholars both inside Tibet and out, ignores the lasting impact of the Tibetan Buddhist cultural empire on nearly the whole of northeastern Asia well into the twentieth century. From the An Lushan rebellion in 755 until the Sino-Tibetan peace treaty of 821-822, Tibet took advantage of Tang Chinese military weaknesses to claim a vast stretch of territory extending through Mongolia to the southern edge of the Great Wall. Constant fighting with Chinese and Uighurs during a century of military expansion took a harsh toll on Tibetans forces, and by 863 most Tibetan-ruled areas outside present-day ethnic Tibet was lost. Though the Tibetan Empire retained little of its territorial gains through subsequent Chinese dynasties, the channels of cultural exchange planted during a century of Tibetan dominance in the region should not be underestimated.
    Perhaps the most profound effect of Tibetan expansion was the spread of Buddhism into mainstream Chinese, Mongolian, and Manchu society, so powerful as to nullify the influence of Islam in the region. Tibetan monks conducted steady relations with the Chinese state even after their territorial losses, holding court positions during the Song dynasty and solidifying a Tibetan-Mongol cultural alliance during the Yuan. Cultural exchange remained vibrant through the Qing dynasty and well into the twentieth century, such that Tibetan--rather than Chinese--became the lingua franca linking scholars from Tibet, Mongolia, Siberia, Manchuria, and China. Tibet was also a hub of international trade moving throughout Eastern Asia. Caravans were forced to travel through Tibet so as to join merchants from China with those in Central Asia; this constant traffic did much to reinforce the exchange conduits--economic as well as cultural--that actualized Tibet’s lasting influence.
    Chinese Perspective
    The Tang dynasty and the Tubo kingdom shared a friendly and symbiotic relationship. The period of the Tang and Tubo empires only saw occasional military conflicts, conflicts that were simply inevitable due to human nature. Instead, both governments got along, and saw there were greater advantages to be had from working together and building close ties. Their relationship is summed up by part of the text of the Tang-Tubo Alliance Tablet: "The Tang Emperor and the Tubo King, as maternal uncle and nephew, have met and agreed to become allied as one." Upon founding the Tubo Empire in the 630's, Songstan Gambo had a great interest in the Tang dynasty under Emperor Taizong. The feudal Tang dynasty boasted a highly developed political, economic, and cultural system that the slavery-based Tubo system could learn from. In 634, Gambo sent an envoy to the Tang capital in order to ask for an adviser. Emperor Taizong agreed, thereby marking the beginning of the Tang-Tubo friendship. This friendship was further solidified by the marriage between Gambo and Tang Princess Wen Cheng. Upon her arrival in Tibet, Princess Wen Cheng taught Tibetans how to reclaim and grow crops, construct water mills and make ropes. Because of the strong relationship with the Tang, Gambo was able to better absorb production techniques and the culture of the Tang in the Central Plains.
    The continuation of the strong Tubo-Tang relations was kept alive in the union of the Tang Princess Jin Cheng, and King Tride Tsugdan of Tubo. As a result of these marriages the Tubo received political, economic and cultural instruction from the Tang.
    The Tang also benefited from the Tubo-Tang alliance. As a result of Princess Wen Chen's marriage to Gambo, Emperor Taizong was able to spread his policy of pacification. This two hundred year period, marked by two marriages, eight pledges of alliance, and 191 exchanges of envoys--consisted of the exchange of economic, political, and cultural ideas between the Tibetans and the Han. This relationship was made even stronger during the Song dynasty and laid the foundation for the incorporation of Tibet into Chinese territory in the thirteenth century.

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  3. page Republican China and Independent Tibet edited ... Back to China and Tibet Under Manchu Rule INTRO Array Tibetan Perpective In 1910 the Chin…
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    Back to China and Tibet Under Manchu Rule
    INTRO
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    In 1910 the Chinese military invaded Tibet and forced the Dalai Lama to flee to India. He remained there while the Chinese authorities governed from Lhasa with the help of some Tibetan officials until the fall of the Qing in 1911. At this point, factionalism in the military broke out and rule over Tibet became unstable. In India, the Dalai Lama declared Tibet an independent nation. The British intervened on the Dalai Lama’s behalf and the Chinese, under their new president Yuan Shikai, surrendered and came to the negotiation table with the Tibetans. In 1914, the Simla Convention was signed by Tibet and Britain, but the China boycotted the negotiations, refusing to grant Tibet autonomous power and restrict Chinese military and political presence there. A “new” Tibet grew out of the accords: an equal, and well-developed country with political reforms instituted by the Dalai Lama. With experience abroad and excellent political training, the Dalai Lama systematically analyzed and solved the issues plaguing Tibet’s prosperity.
    The 13th Dalai Lama was a patriot in the truest sense. He won back control of Tibet and refused to compromise to the Chinese invaders (unlike the Panchen Lama who rubbed shoulders with the Chinese officials during the occupation). During the Dalai Lama’s exile, the Panchen Lama moved into the Dalai Lama’s residences and began to fraternize with the Manchu Amban in public. This outraged the Tibetan people. It is likely, however, that the Panchen Lama’s close ties with the Chinese were the result of his officials had collaborated with the Qing government. When the Dalai Lama finally returned to Lhasa, the Panchen Lama met the Dalai Lama’s entourage and expressed regret that he had capitulated to the Chinese.
    After the Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa in 1913, Tibet prospered as a free country. Tibet even developed an army that increased its superiority over the Chinese; officers and soldiers were eager to join its ranks to represent their country and fight for its freedom.
    Scholar's Perspective
    During the Republican period, Tibet became part of the imagined Chinese nation through the spread of Tibetan Buddhist practices and teachings. This popular movement gained momentum by integrating Tibetan Buddhist lamas who received support of prominent political leaders and Chinese monks who relied on the backing from lay Chinese practitioners.
    The flourishing of a specifically Tibetan form of Buddhism seems surprising because historically the two traditions did not recognize their common source. Deriving their belief systems from different points in the development of Buddhism, the Tibetan and Chinese Tibetan traditions had distinctive practices and training. Conservative Chinese Buddhists incorporated aspects of the increasingly popular Tibetan form to adapt to the encroachments of modernity, and a small number of new Tibetan Buddhist institutions facilitated society’s conception of a unified Buddhism strongly tied to the formation of the modern nation.
    The numerous Chinese sources on Tibetan Buddhism in this period, including those by lay societies and laymen, indicate its widespread appeal. Furthermore, public ceremonies meant to incorporate the teachings of esoteric Buddhism solidified the relationship between religion and country by involving prominent Tibetan Lamas in the project of ‘saving China.’ In Sichuan, for example, the Tibetan Rdo rje gcod pa became famous by receiving invitations from warlords and the laity to perform these ceremonies, which resulted in increased government interest and an elaborate event in 1931 called the Southwest Dharma-assembly for Peace. This ceremony began a heightened exposure to Tibetan material culture and official governmental inclusion of Tibetan Buddhism that has continued to the present.
    Chinese Perspective
    Since the 13th century Tibet has been under the jurisdiction of the Central Government of China and is an inalienable part of Chinese territory.
    After the fall of the Qing dynasty the British imposed themselves unlawfully into the negotiations between China and the territories under its control. British officers aided and abetted Tibetan separatists who tried to instill chaos in China and break apart our unified country. With the goal of invading China and gaining control of Tibet, Britain first advanced the fallacy of the suzerainty and used force to influence Tibetan lamas according to their agenda. Britain plotted to make Tibet its protectorate, taking advantage of the contradictions between the 12th Dalai Lama and the Central Government of the Qing and the disturbances within China. The Simla Conference was a secret deal concocted by Britain to inflame the activities of Tibetan separatists and further entrench chaos within China. The Republican government in China, while under attack itself from western powers, maintained its close ties with the Tibetan ruling bodies so as to protect the sanctity of the Chinese nation.
    After the death of the 13th Dalai Lama, the British government in India staged independence protests and other riotous activities in Tibet during the Chinese War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. The peaceful liberation of Tibet led by the Chinese defeated India’s interventionist plans. But some separatists in Xikang and Tibet had stepped up their activities for breaking away from the Chinese nation. Such activities ended in failure in 1959. The toiling masses in Tibet were liberated by the Chinese and have once again become masters of their own land in China.

    GLOSSARY
    12th Dalai Lama (1857-1875): born Trinley Gyatso, ruled during a time of political unrest in China and strained relations between China and Tibet
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  4. page Economy and Religion Between China and Tibet edited ... Back to Tibet and China Under Mongol Domination In 1368, the Chinese overthrew the Mongols an…
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    Back to Tibet and China Under Mongol Domination
    In 1368, the Chinese overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming Dynasty, which lasted until 1644. State policies toward Tibet changed little from those of the Yuan Dynasty. However, internal power struggles among the Tibetan elite caused the Ming to grant official offices and titles to Tibetans in power in order to help pacify the situation.
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    In 1358, Changchub Gyaltsen marched to Sakya and imprisoned some of the ministers and emerged as the new King of Tibet. The Sakya hegemony consequently was in decline. By 1368, the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty and followed earlier Mongol custom by asking for a new spiritual teacher. No ruling lama of any standing accepted the invitation, however. Hearing about Tsongkapa Lobsang Drakpa’s fame, the Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang extended him an invitation, but Tsongkhapa declined and sent his disciple instead. In 1407, Deshen Shekpa, the 4th reincarnation of Karmapa Lama went to China. The Ming continued with the Mongol practice of bestowing honors and titles.
    The Phamo Drupa collapsed in 1434, and by 1435, the Rinpung family exerted their power and influence by looking after civil administration while Gongma Drakpa Jungney ruled. There were constant squabbles between the Gongmas and the Rinpungs that resulted in the Rinpungs becoming more powerful and the Gongmas remaining just figureheads. By 1492, Donyo Dorje had captured Lhasa and remained there till 1517.
    During these conflicts, Mongol tribes relocated themselves in the north-eastern region of Tibet. Tseten Dorje, a servant of Rinpung asserted his powers and sought Mongol help. He conquered Shigatse in 1565. Ties with the Mongols strengthened, and over eleven years, he took over four large territories in Southern Tibet and considerable areas in western and northern Tibet. There was bitter rivalry between the Karmapas supported by the Depa Tsangpas and the Gelugpa who were located in U and who were later supported by Mongols because of their reverence to the Dalai lamas as their spiritual teachers.
    Scholar's Perspective
    In attempting to show that the Ming maintained the Mongol rule of Tibet, it must be shown that certain elements of the Mongol system continued under the Ming. Among these are the appointment of Sakya officials and the submission of other Tibetans to these officials. During Mongol rule, the empire appointed the leader of a Sakya sect to be the leader of Tibet. As the Mongol power diminished, however, the Sakya hegemony also declined. Therefore, when the Ming attempted to appoint a leader in Tibet, there was no single leader that could be given supreme authority. Therefore, the Ming were unable to continue the same Mongol tradition of appointing of Sakya officials. Consequently, they could not carry on the same system of appointing certain religious officials. The system also differed in that, upon appointing officials, the Yuan expected the Central Tibetans to submit to this authority whereas the Ming did not.
    Even the tribute system between the Ming and Tibet does not indicate a continued system of rule over Tibetans. The tribute system was an opportunity for the Tibetans rather than an obligation since the Tibetans hade more to gain with the system than the Ming.
    During the Ming Dynasty, the Emperor appointed Namgyal Palzangpo, the last Imperial Tutor of the Yuan, to the position of “State Tutor.” Despite this appointment, he did not have any temporal authority over Tibet nor religious authority over the numerous schools of Tibetan Buddhism. This, however, does not indicate the Ming ruling over Tibet since, at the same time, a rival leader in Tibet defeated Sakya rulers and sent a mission to the Ming Court. This event reveals that some Tibetans did not depend of Ming authority and took control of their own affairs. In the end, the Ming did not uphold a continued system of power over Tibet.
    Chinese Perspective
    After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty maintained rule over central Tibet through the same system of granting official posts to both administrative and religious leaders. Zhu Yuanzhang, sent two imperial edicts to Tibet to inform the local leaders of “China’s unification” and to offer former Yuan officials posts in its government along with the exchange of their previous titles and seals for new ones. The last acting Imperial Tutor of the Yuan Dynasty, Namgyal Palzangpo, was one such official crucial to this continuity. The Ming appointed him State Tutor, gave him a new jade seal of authority, and allowed him to recommend other former officials to the Ming Court. His actions led numerous leaders to pledge their loyalty and receive new positions.
    The differences between Yuan and Ming rule over Tibet are only in the methods used to assert control. The Ming could not ally with the most powerful Sakya sect as did the Yuan Dynasty because there were competing religious factions in Tibet during the Ming Dynasty. In order to promote pacification, Zhu Yuangzhang supported leaders from a number of different sects. Also, the Ming Dynasty was not as militarily strong as the Yuan and did not station troops in Tibet. Zhu Yuangzhang, however, still maintained sovereignty over the region.
    Economic ties were an important factor in this close relationship between Tibetan leaders and the Ming Court. Tibetan officials made frequent trips to the Ming Court to pay tribute. In return for their tributes, Tibetans received generous gifts. These Tibetan tribute-envoys in fact acted as trade delegations. They began to come more frequently, becoming a financial burden to the Ming, although the Ming Court was lenient in their regulations to try to control the flood of Tibetan envoys seeking to pay tribute.

    GLOSSARY
    Changchub Gyaltsen: instrumental in strengthening the Phagmodrupa myriarchy, Changchub Gyaltsen put almost all the territory of the U region under his control and was victorious against the Sakya sect. Consequently, he replaced the Sakya regime with the Phagmodrupa Desi regime that was later recognized by the Yuan Dynasty.
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  5. page China and Tibet Under PRC Rule edited ... Back to Republican China and Independent Tibet INTRO Array Tibetan Perpective In 1949, th…
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    Back to Republican China and Independent Tibet
    INTRO
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    In 1949, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet and news outlets all over China proudly proclaimed that Tibet had been liberated from "foreign imperialists." Tibetans, however, had a different take. Previous treaties between Tibet and the British government in India had been passed onto Nehru’s post-Colonial government, which seemed hesitant about getting involved, though publicly voiced support for the Tibetan cause. The Seventeen Article Agreement of May 23, 1951 was signed under considerable pressure from the Chinese government, which also forced the Tibetans to recognize the Maoist candidate as the seventh Panchen Lama. At the time there existed a considerable strain on already scant Tibetan resources that had been initially caused by the garrisoning of Chinese troops in the region.
    Throughout this period, the Dalai Lama tried to remain conciliatory as the Chinese propaganda machine rapidly disempowered him, reducing him to a mere figurehead. By 1958, a revolt of guerilla fighters had materialized which was met by fierce resistance from the Chinese, including artillery shelling, and widespread "cases of genocide." The rebels held much of Southern Tibet and allowed other peoples to return to their native regions. Despite requests, Nehru never visited during the revolt, in part because the Chinese government could not guarantee his safety. The Dalai Lama tried to adopt a moderate, compromising tone, saying, "My most urgent moral duty at that moment was to prevent a totally disastrous clash between my unarmed people and the Chinese army." However, he was soon forced into exile, where he met a hero's welcome in India. Thousands of refugees left in the ensuing period. A UN Resolution overwhelmingly passed acknowledging the cultural and religious legacy of Tibet and that its traditions should be preserved. The actions of the Chinese government, however, were not discussed in this resolution, and no political or military intervention was forwarded.
    Scholar's Perspective
    In 1913 the 13th Dalai Lama expelled Chinese officials from Tibet. Tibet retained its own army and controlled its borders, used its own currency and had its own government. For four more decades, Tibet appeared to be independent. However, the Tibetan elite feared modernization and poorly instituted policy to ensure independence. After WWII China continued to be a real threat to Tibet, which was still not recognized internationally as in independent state. Mao and the PRC set out to “peacefully liberate” Tibet by “gradually” winning over the Tibetan elite and the Dalai Lama. This policy of “gradualism” was not completely successful, so China invaded Tibet in October of 1950. In 1951, the “Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” appeared: the Dalai Lama sent a delegation to Beijing in March to sign a document stating that China had sovereignty over Tibet, but that Tibet could rule itself until “the leaders and people of Tibet wanted reforms.” Factions in the CCP split in their support for either the Dalai or Panchen Lama.
    Fan Ming favored the Panchen Lama over the Dalai Lama, and he accepted the Panchen Lama’s word of Tibet being apart of China as if the he were speaking for all of Tibet. Fan called for a “back Tibet” and a “front Tibet”, and he argued against the power that Mao was giving to the Dalai Lama. Different factions within the CCP were, in actuality, siding with different factions within Tibet. Eventually Fan was arrested on accusations of attempting to split “the unity of Tibet”. In March of 1959, an uprising occurred in Lhasa, and the Dalai Lama fled into exile. Mao’s “gradualist” approach was seen as one of his greatest failures by his Chinese peers. From the 1980’s to the present-day, Tibet has become a “small ethnicity” policy. China aims at “a high degree of integration of Tibetans with the rest of China.” This policy has come about due to a series of events—such as failed negotiations with the Dalai Lama (and his own international campaign), as well as the feeling that fostering higher degrees of Tibetan culture only add to the “counter-productiveness to China’s national interests”. To fully understand Sino-Tibetan relations, one must explore and analyze the different factions within both the Chinese and Tibetan sides.
    Chinese Perspective
    The peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951 by the People's Liberation Army struck a huge blow against the so-called "Tibetan Independence" movement. However, troops under CCP Central Committee direction were forced to put down a rebellion in 1955 led by Tibetan separatists who resisted the abolishment of feudal law and inhumane living conditions. Although the Seventeen Article Agreement was signed in 1951, granting Tibetans human rights for the first time, the situation in Tibet was still in dire need of Chinese military intervention.
    At the time of Tibetan liberation, the two classes in Tibet were serf owners and serfs. The former class made up only five percent of the population and owned all the land, while the latter class, composed of 95 percent of the population, worked the land and owned no means of production themselves. The owners often abused their workers terribly. After the Seventeen Article Agreement abolished serfdom, the CCP Tibet Work Committee came into Tibet to meet with serfs to inspire class struggle against the ruling elite. However, former serf owners and ruling-class elites resisted the reforms put in place by the CCP and instead incited riots and began an armed resistance that led to the slaughter of many Han Chinese soldiers and innocent Tibetan civilians that stood in their way. The rhetoric used by the separatists cited religious freedom and independence for Tibet as the means to justify their violent behavior.
    The fighting continued throughout the mid to late 1950s. In 1959 the Central Government put forward a directive of "conducting reform while quelling the rebellion." Finally, after getting the situation under control, feudalism was no longer the de facto economic and social system in Tibet. In 1965, the Tibetan Autonomous Region was official founded after the implementation of many democratic reforms such as the right to vote for all Tibetans. Although the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique, who had led much of the bloody, separatist rebellion, set up a "government-in-exile" in Dharamsala, India in 1960, Tibet still remained a part of the Chinese Motherland.

    GLOSSARY
    13th Dalai Lama (1876-1933): born Thubten Gyatso, responsible for negotiating the Simla Convention with Great Britain that asserted Tibetan independence
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  6. page China and Tibet Under Manchu Rule edited ... Back to Economy and Religion Between China and Tibet During the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, whic…
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    Back to Economy and Religion Between China and Tibet
    During the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, which lasted from 1644 to 1911, several Tibetan monks held court appointments in the Beijing capital. After the fifth Dalai Lama paid tribute to the Qing emperor in 1652, he received the title of "Buddha of Great Compassion in the West." For most of its rule, the Qing central government officially recognized the political and religious authority of both the Dalai and Panchen Lamas. From the early 19th Century until the dynasty's collapse, Chinese rulers were principally occupied with managing the encroaching Western powers.
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    There was a recurring Manchu influence in Tibet following the enthronement of the seventh Dalai Lama. In 1720, the Manchus stationed a garrison in Lhasa alongside a Tibetan council of ministers. The garrison was withdrawn in 1723, allowing Tibetans to be the sole administrators of Central Tibet. By 1726, however, tensions arose among the council of ministers in Lhasa. The senior and junior ministers were at odds over policy issues, and this tension culminated in civil war where the senior minister Pholhanas emerged victorious.
    Because of Tibet’s internal strife, the Manchus reestablished their presence in Tibet with a military garrison in Lhasa. Two resident Manchu officials, or Ambans, were in charge of the garrison, and the Dalai Lama was sent to Garthar. Additionally, a new council of ministers was set up. Pholhanas, however, had the real authority. He had such power that he did not recall the Dalai Lama. In fact, Pholhanas kept the Dalai Lama in a harness. Even when the Dalai Lama did return from Garthar, Pholhanas retained authority by maintaining ties with the Manchus and showing troop strength.
    Following Pholhanas’ reign, the Dalai Lama assumed both spiritual and temporal power of Tibet in 1751. The Dalai Lama took power in the Kashag, or the new council of ministers. This new council, however, proved to be weak largely because of the council’s design in which everyone was to check each other and no one was to assume overall responsibility. Therefore, the Dalai Lama’s political life was plagued by difficulties.
    Scholar's Perspective
    During the reigns of the Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong emperors, many eminent Tibetan monks held positions of power in the Qing court, acting as intermediaries for the emperors to exert influence on Tibetan and Mongol populations. One of these strong relationships linking Tibetan clergy and the Manchu court, notable for its duration and closeness, was the connection between the emperors and the Lcang-skya Living Buddha. The Buddha’s third incarnation, Lcang-skya Rolpavi-rdorje, enjoyed a particularly intimate friendship with the Qianlong emperor. He received the emperor’s personal respect and served as both advisor and assistant to the royal court on issues related to Tibetan, Buddhist, and Mongol affairs.
    Lcang-skya Rolpavi-rdorje’s many responsibilities in the Qing government underscore his close affiliation with the Chinese government and his authority as a representative of the Tibetan people. The official court post was first granted to the second Lcang-skya Living Buddha during the Kangxi reign. Kangxi held the second Lcang-skya Living Buddha in high esteem after the lama led military victories over the Mongols in Qinghai. When Rolpavi-rdorje was of age he immediately gained high status at court and began paying regular tributes to the Chinese emperors (Qianlong ascended to the throne shortly after Rolpavi-rdorje gained his title). Amongst his accomplishments were supervising the construction of monasteries; recruiting and training monks; translating Buddhist scriptures and compiling a Mongolian-Tibetan dictionary of Buddhist terms; and acting as emissary for the Qing court to Tibetan and Mongolian territories. In all, the relationship between Qianlong and Lcang-skya Rolpavi-rdorje was a substantial one marked by mutual respect.
    Chinese Perspective
    With the beginning of the Qing Dynasty in 1644, China's effective power over the Tibetan region surpassed that of the Ming and the Yuan. During this period, both the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni ruled Tibet. Over the years, Tibetan nobles and monks traveled to the imperial court in Beijing, where the Qing emperor would bestow upon them a seal of authority documenting his endorsement and authentication of their respective titles and positions. These proclamations, in turn, led to an increase of political power back home due to the emperor's official approval of his Tibetan subjects.
    One of the most important developments of the Qing was the Imperial Ordinance of 1793. The 29 articles of the law laid out a system for the Amban, the office through which the imperial court governed Tibet, regarding such issues as administrative affairs, foreign affairs, border defense affairs, religious affairs, systems of personnel affairs, judicial affairs, and finance and tax. The order led to important steps in Tibet's growth as a province of China, such as the coining of money, the establishment of an army, and documenting all Living Buddhas and Lamas. Power ultimately rested in the hands of Beijing officials, although Tibetan leaders did play an integral role in ruling.
    While the dynasty also had troubled times, including various uprisings in high levels of Tibetan government against the Qing, and an invasion by the Nepalese, the most damaging events were brought upon the region at the end of the era by British imperialists. Thus, despite minor setbacks until this point, the years of the Qing dynasty served only to strengthen China's control of the Tibetan area.

    GLOSSARY
    7th Dalai Lama (1708-1757): born Kelzang Gyatso, a great scholar and poet, he was enthroned in the Potala Palace in 1720. In 1728, he was moved from Lhasa so that he had less influence on the Tibetan government. In 1751, he came back to Lhasa to preside over the Kashag.
    (view changes)
    8:29 am
  7. page testpage edited ... Back to Economy and Religion Between China and Tibet During the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, whic…
    ...
    Back to Economy and Religion Between China and Tibet
    During the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, which lasted from 1644 to 1911, several Tibetan monks held court appointments in the Beijing capital. After the fifth Dalai Lama paid tribute to the Qing emperor in 1652, he received the title of "Buddha of Great Compassion in the West." For most of its rule, the Qing central government officially recognized the political and religious authority of both the Dalai and Panchen Lamas. From the early 19th Century until the dynasty's collapse, Chinese rulers were principally occupied with managing the encroaching Western powers.
    ArrayTibetan Perpective
    There was a recurring Manchu influence in Tibet following the enthronement of the seventh Dalai Lama. In 1720, the Manchus stationed a garrison in Lhasa alongside a Tibetan council of ministers. The garrison was withdrawn in 1723, allowing Tibetans to be the sole administrators of Central Tibet. By 1726, however, tensions arose among the council of ministers in Lhasa. The senior and junior ministers were at odds over policy issues, and this tension culminated in civil war where the senior minister Pholhanas emerged victorious.
    Because of Tibet’s internal strife, the Manchus reestablished their presence in Tibet with a military garrison in Lhasa. Two resident Manchu officials, or Ambans, were in charge of the garrison, and the Dalai Lama was sent to Garthar. Additionally, a new council of ministers was set up. Pholhanas, however, had the real authority. He had such power that he did not recall the Dalai Lama. In fact, Pholhanas kept the Dalai Lama in a harness. Even when the Dalai Lama did return from Garthar, Pholhanas retained authority by maintaining ties with the Manchus and showing troop strength.
    Following Pholhanas’ reign, the Dalai Lama assumed both spiritual and temporal power of Tibet in 1751. The Dalai Lama took power in the Kashag, or the new council of ministers. This new council, however, proved to be weak largely because of the council’s design in which everyone was to check each other and no one was to assume overall responsibility. Therefore, the Dalai Lama’s political life was plagued by difficulties.
    Scholar's Perspective
    During the reigns of the Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong emperors, many eminent Tibetan monks held positions of power in the Qing court, acting as intermediaries for the emperors to exert influence on Tibetan and Mongol populations. One of these strong relationships linking Tibetan clergy and the Manchu court, notable for its duration and closeness, was the connection between the emperors and the Lcang-skya Living Buddha. The Buddha’s third incarnation, Lcang-skya Rolpavi-rdorje, enjoyed a particularly intimate friendship with the Qianlong emperor. He received the emperor’s personal respect and served as both advisor and assistant to the royal court on issues related to Tibetan, Buddhist, and Mongol affairs.
    Lcang-skya Rolpavi-rdorje’s many responsibilities in the Qing government underscore his close affiliation with the Chinese government and his authority as a representative of the Tibetan people. The official court post was first granted to the second Lcang-skya Living Buddha during the Kangxi reign. Kangxi held the second Lcang-skya Living Buddha in high esteem after the lama led military victories over the Mongols in Qinghai. When Rolpavi-rdorje was of age he immediately gained high status at court and began paying regular tributes to the Chinese emperors (Qianlong ascended to the throne shortly after Rolpavi-rdorje gained his title). Amongst his accomplishments were supervising the construction of monasteries; recruiting and training monks; translating Buddhist scriptures and compiling a Mongolian-Tibetan dictionary of Buddhist terms; and acting as emissary for the Qing court to Tibetan and Mongolian territories. In all, the relationship between Qianlong and Lcang-skya Rolpavi-rdorje was a substantial one marked by mutual respect.
    Chinese Perspective
    With the beginning of the Qing Dynasty in 1644, China's effective power over the Tibetan region surpassed that of the Ming and the Yuan. During this period, both the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni ruled Tibet. Over the years, Tibetan nobles and monks traveled to the imperial court in Beijing, where the Qing emperor would bestow upon them a seal of authority documenting his endorsement and authentication of their respective titles and positions. These proclamations, in turn, led to an increase of political power back home due to the emperor's official approval of his Tibetan subjects.
    One of the most important developments of the Qing was the Imperial Ordinance of 1793. The 29 articles of the law laid out a system for the Amban, the office through which the imperial court governed Tibet, regarding such issues as administrative affairs, foreign affairs, border defense affairs, religious affairs, systems of personnel affairs, judicial affairs, and finance and tax. The order led to important steps in Tibet's growth as a province of China, such as the coining of money, the establishment of an army, and documenting all Living Buddhas and Lamas. Power ultimately rested in the hands of Beijing officials, although Tibetan leaders did play an integral role in ruling.
    While the dynasty also had troubled times, including various uprisings in high levels of Tibetan government against the Qing, and an invasion by the Nepalese, the most damaging events were brought upon the region at the end of the era by British imperialists. Thus, despite minor setbacks until this point, the years of the Qing dynasty served only to strengthen China's control of the Tibetan area.

    GLOSSARY
    7th Dalai Lama (1708-1757): born Kelzang Gyatso, a great scholar and poet, he was enthroned in the Potala Palace in 1720. In 1728, he was moved from Lhasa so that he had less influence on the Tibetan government. In 1751, he came back to Lhasa to preside over the Kashag.
    (view changes)
    8:27 am
  8. page testpage edited testpage China and Tibet Under Manchu Rule Forward to Republican China and Independent Tibet …
    testpage
    China and Tibet Under Manchu Rule
    Forward to Republican China and Independent Tibet
    Back to Economy and Religion Between China and Tibet
    During the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, which lasted from 1644 to 1911, several Tibetan monks held court appointments in the Beijing capital. After the fifth Dalai Lama paid tribute to the Qing emperor in 1652, he received the title of "Buddha of Great Compassion in the West." For most of its rule, the Qing central government officially recognized the political and religious authority of both the Dalai and Panchen Lamas. From the early 19th Century until the dynasty's collapse, Chinese rulers were principally occupied with managing the encroaching Western powers.
    Array
    GLOSSARY
    7th Dalai Lama (1708-1757): born Kelzang Gyatso, a great scholar and poet, he was enthroned in the Potala Palace in 1720. In 1728, he was moved from Lhasa so that he had less influence on the Tibetan government. In 1751, he came back to Lhasa to preside over the Kashag.
    Ambans: a high official in the Qing imperial government. Ambans were introduced in Tibet in 1727, and were used to influence Tibetan politics.
    Emperor Kangxi (1654-1722): emperor of the Qing Dynasty for 61 years, making him the longest reigning Chinese Emperor in history. He was known as a man of great military and intellectual ability. During his reign, China saw great prosperity and growth.
    Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799): fourth Qing Emperor to rule ever China, he reigned from 1735-1796. During his reign he was unrelentingly conservative and sinocentric. The Qing Dynasty began its demise during his reign.
    Emperor Yongzheng (1678-1735): third Qing Emperor to rule of China, he ruled from 1722-1735. His main goal was to create an effective government at minimum expense, and he used military force in order to protect his dynasty. He is often considered to be despotic.
    Imperial Ordinance of 1793: comprised of 29 acts, an order that placed the Ambans in absolute charge of financial, diplomatic and trade matters in Tibet.
    Kashag: a four-man Council of Ministers presided over by the Dalai Lama created in 1751. The original design was largely ineffectual because everyone was to check each other and no one was to assume overall responsibility.
    Panchen Erdeni: otherwise known as the Panchen Lama. The Panchen Erdeni is one of the two highest ranking lamas within the gelugpa tradtion along with the Dalai Lama.
    Pholhanas: effective ruler of Tibet from 1733-1747. In the 1720s, he was a senior minister in the Council of Ministers whose interests rested with the Tsang. His interests led to conflict with the junior ministers and civil war emerged. He emerged victorious and became effective leader of Tibet. During his reign, he kept the Dalai Lama at bay and maintained ties with the Manchu.

    (view changes)
    8:25 am

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